Genting Theme Park sendiri juga tidak seperti yang saya kunjungi pada kunjungan pertama dulu. Inland from the river banks are bustling bazaars, dotted with atmospheric Mughal monuments and colonial relics. The Ramsar Convention Secretatiat. Retrieved from " https: Gaya is well known and famous as cultural capital of Magadh Region which is also found its description in Vedas and Purans. Beyond the souvlaki, expect cosmopolitan restaurants inspired by Lebanese, Vietnamese and even Sudanese cooking.
Khách sạn tại Malaysia
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A Asset Management S. Username Password Remember me. I accept cookies from this site. It possessed an important international port, where many foreign ships stopped to barter and resupply.
In , another envoy of the same country arrived at the Chinese capital, Jiankang. During this period, Pahang, designated as Muaeng Pahang  was established as one of the twelve naksat city states  of Ligor. In the 14th century, Pahang began consolidating its influence in the southern part of the Malay peninsula. The Pahang ruler then, titled Maharaja, was also the overlord of countries of Ujong Tanah 'land's end' , the southerly part of the peninsula including Temasek.
In the year , Maharaja Tajau sent envoys with a letter on a gold leaf and bringing as tribute six foreign slaves and products of the country. In the year , during the reign of Maharaja Pa-la-mi-so-la-ta-lo-si-ni transliterated by historian as 'Parameswara Teluk Chini' , he also sent envoys carrying tributes. The Old Pahang Sultanate centred in modern-day Pekan was established in the 15th century. At the height of its influence, the Sultanate was an important power in Southeast Asian history and controlled the entire Pahang basin, bordering to the north, the Pattani Sultanate , and adjoins to that of Johor Sultanate to the south.
To the west, it also extends jurisdiction over part of modern-day Selangor and Negeri Sembilan. The sultanate has its origin as a vassal to Melaka , with its first Sultan was a Melakan prince, Muhammad Shah , himself the grandson of Dewa Sura , the last pre-Melakan ruler of Pahang. In , the last Sultan of Melaka, Mahmud Shah died. Two attempts were made in at Muar and in at Portuguese Malacca. However, in the face of superior Portuguese arms and vessels, the Pahang and Johor forces were forced to retreat on both occasions.
During the reign of Sultan Abdul Kadir , Pahang enjoyed a brief period of cordial relations with the Portuguese. However, this relationship was discontinued by his successor, Sultan Ahmad II. Nevertheless, in , Pahang not only tolerated the Dutch , but, following a visit by Admiral Matelief de Jonge , even cooperated with them in an attempt to get rid of the Portuguese. The Sultan tried to reforge the Johor-Pahang alliance to assist the Dutch.
He nevertheless continued to exercise some ruling powers. His reign in exile is considered officially ended after the installation of a distant relative, Raja Bujang to the Pahang throne in , with the support of the Portuguese following a pact between the Portuguese and Sultan of Johor.
Raja Bujang who reigned as Abdul Jalil Shah was eventually deposed in the Acehnese invasion in , but restored to the Pahang throne and also installed as the new Sultan of Johor following the death of his uncle, Abdullah Ma'ayat Shah in This event led to the union of the crown of Pahang and Johor, and the formal establishment of Johor Empire.
The modern Pahang kingdom came into existence with the consolidation of power by the Bendahara family in Pahang, following the gradual dismemberment of Johor Empire. A self-rule was established in Pahang in the late 18th century, with Tun Abdul Majid declared as the first Raja Bendahara.
The weakening of the Johor sultanate and the disputed succession to the throne was matched by an increasing independence of the great territorial magnates; the Bendahara in Pahang, the Temenggong in Johor and Singapore, and the Yamtuan Muda in Riau. The younger son Wan Ahmad challenged the succession of his half-brother Tun Mutahir , in a dispute that escalated into a civil war.
Supported by the neighbouring Terengganu Sultanate and the Siamese, Wan Ahmad emerged victorious, establishing controls over important towns and expelled his brother in He served as the last Raja Bendahara, and was proclaimed Sultan of Pahang by his chiefs in Due to internal strife within Pahang, the British pressured Sultan Ahmad to acquiesce to the presence of a British adviser. Following the intervention, Sultan Ahmad became a Ruler-in-Council and acted in accordance with the advice of the British Resident and the State Council, except in matters pertaining Islam and Malay customs.
Taxes were to be collected in the name of the Sultan by the Resident, with the assistance of European officers. Sultan Ahmad appeared to be co-operating with the British, but his sympathies were known for the dissidents.
By the revolt was suppressed by the British and many of the dissidents surrendered. This had effectively reduced the Sultan's powers and authority, as did the creation of Federal Council in The executive and legislative functions of the State Council became increasingly nominal.
Like other Malay States , Pahang suffered during the Japanese occupation of Malaya until the year During the Japanese Occupation, the reigning Sultan Abu Bakar opened a large potato plantation behind the Terentang Palace to help ease the food shortage and he personally approved proposals to form the Askar Wataniah , an underground Malay resistance force.
The Sultan spent the final days of the Occupation in a jungle hideout with members of Force , resistance fighters and refugees. In late , to mark the decommissioning of the Askar Wataniah, the troops paraded through Pekan and submitted to a royal inspection, after which they were feted at the Sa'adah Palace with what has been called 'the first ronggeng of the liberation'.
The state's administrative capital, which was established in Kuala Lipis during British intervention, was moved to Kuantan. The semi independent state gained Independence in and reconstituted as Malaysia with the inclusion the states of Singapore left the federation in , Sabah and Sarawak in Geographically diverse, Pahang occupies the vast Pahang River basin, which is enclosed by the Titiwangsa Range to the west and the eastern highlands to the north.
Pahang is divided into three ecoregions , the freshwater systems, the lowlands and highlands rainforests and the coastline. The Pahang River basin connects with Malaysia's two largest natural freshwater lakes, Bera and Chini. Described as wetland of international importance, Bera Lake was accepted as Malaysia's first Ramsar site in The climate is temperate enough to have distinct temperature variations year round, and much of the highlands are covered with tropical rainforest.
Pahang is home to Malaysia's two important national parks , Taman Negara and Endau-Rompin , both located in the north and south of the state respectively.
These large primary rainforests are extensive, and are home to many rare or endangered animals, such as the tapir , kancil , tigers , elephants and leopards.
Ferns are also extremely common, mainly due to the high humidity and fog that permeates the area. The Cameron Highlands is home to extensive tea plantations and also a major supplier of legumes and vegetables to both Malaysia and Singapore. Pahang's long, scenic coastline is a paradise of swaying palms and sandy beaches like Cherating , Teluk Cempedak , Beserah , Batu Hitam and Tanjung Sepat. Precipitation is the lowest in March, with an average of Pahang experiences two monsoon seasons: The tropical storms of the northeast monsoon wash ashore from the end of October till the beginning of March ever year, bringing heavy rainfall, powerful currents and unpredictable tempest of the monsoon season coming in from the South China Sea.
The southwest monsoon, which occurs beginning March every year, brings somewhat less rainfall, with sunny and tropical weather up until the end of October. Mount Tahan , the highest mountain of Peninsular Malaysia. South China Sea view from Tioman Island.
In spite off increasing land conversion, rapid industrialisation and a rising population, Pahang has a very extensive system of protected and managed areas of natural resources. There include some 74 forest reserves, including 10 virgin jungle reserves and 13 amenity forests, wildlife reserves , parks and several marine parks. This includes almost the full range of forest types found in Malaysia, although some of the unusual types, heath forest or forest on ultrabasic rocks, exist only in tiny areas of Pahang.
The totally protected forest within Taman Negara and Krau Wildlife Reserve includes small areas of extreme lowland alluvial plains. Elsewhere, most of the dryland forest in Pahang is on steep slopes and therefore has both catchment protection and slope protection functions. The representation of montane species of plants and animals is particularly numerous. Peaks within Taman Negara, Mount Benom , and peaks along the Titiwangsa Range , with different endemic species in each of these montane regions are located in Pahang.
The large forest blocks of the west and northeast support nationally important populations of big mammals and other fauna, and act as a unit with Taman Negara. Pahang River is the longest river in the Peninsula, and from its headwaters to the estuary it includes virtually all of the natural river types. These range from montane streams, saraca streams and neram rivers to rasau and nipah tidal reaches.
Connecting to this riverine systems are a number of natural freshwater lakes, most notably Bera and Chini lakes. Surrounded by a patchwork of dry lowland dipterocarp forests, the lake environment stretches its tentacles into islands of peat swamp forests. Rich in wildlife and vegetation, the lakes provide an ecosystem which supports not only a diversity of animal and plant life, but sustains the livelihood of the Orang Asal , the aboriginal people inhabiting the wetlands.
Most of the coastline is sandy, with rocky headlands at intervals. Mangroves and nipah swamps are confined to estuaries and do not occur along the exposed coast. These estuaries can be seasonally important to fishermen when rough weather prevents fishing at sea. There are limited areas of hard and soft coral offshore, which have been mapped together with coastal features.
There are many islands off the east coast, the largest being Tioman and Seri Buat islands. Besides the island populations of fauna and flora, which sometimes differ genetically from mainland forms of the same species, these islands are of value for the reefs and other bottom features which support marine biological diversity. The reefs in particular are sensitive to sedimentation from activities on land. These features are related to the maintenance of marine fisheries, an important sector of the coastal economy.
It was formally adopted on 25 February The constitution proclaims that Pahang is a constitutional monarchy. The constitutional head is the Sultan , who is described as "the fountain head of justice and of all authority of government" in the state.
He who is vested with the power as a monarch of the state, is also the Head of Islam and the source of all titles and dignities, honours and awards. No female may become ruler, and female line descendants are generally excluded from succession.
In Pahang traditional political structure, the offices of Orang Besar Berempat 'four major chiefs' are the most important positions after the Sultan himself. Next in the hierarchy were the Orang Besar Berlapan 'eight chiefs' and Orang Besar Enam Belas 'sixteen chiefs' who were subordinated to the principal nobles. The assembly has the power to enact the state laws. State government is led by a Menteri Besar , who is a member of the State Legislative Assembly from the majority party.
According to the constitution of Pahang, the Menteri Besar is required to be a Malay and a Muslim, appointed by the ruler from the party that commands the majority of the State Legislative Assembly. Registered voters of age 21 and above may vote for the members for the state legislative chamber. Executive power is vested in the State Executive Council as per constitution.
It consists of the Mentri Besar, who is its chairman, and 13 other members. As a federal state, Pahang is subjected to Malaysia's legal system which is based on English Common Law. Malaysia also has a special court to hear cases brought by or against royalty. The death penalty is in use for serious crimes such as murder, terrorism, drug trafficking, and kidnapping.
Separate from and running parallel to the civil courts, are the Syariah Court , which apply Sharia law to Muslims in the areas of family law and religious observances. Pahang's constitution empowers the Sultan as the head of Islam and Malay customs in the state.
Pahang is divided into 11 administrative districts, which in turn divided into 66 mukims. An administrative district can be distinguished from a local government area where the former deals with land administration and revenue  while the latter deals with the planning and delivery of basic infrastructure to its inhabitants. Administrative district boundaries are usually coextensive with local government area boundaries but may sometimes differ especially in urbanised areas.
Local governments in Pahang consist of 3 municipal councils and 8 district councils. The administrative divisions in Pahang are originated from the time of the old Pahang Sultanate , whereby territorial magnates appointed by the Sultan to administer the historical divisions of the state. Next in the hierarchy were the Orang Besar Berlapan 'eight chiefs' and then Orang Besar Enam Belas 'sixteen chiefs' who were subordinated to their respective principal nobles.
The lowest of this traditional hierarchy are the Tok Empat or village headmen who were subordinated to Tok Mukim , who in turn subordinated to Tok Penghulu , who in turn subordinated to one of the sixteen chiefs. In modern times, the Tok Empat became formally known as Ketua Kampung literally 'village headman' , although continued to be referred as such informally.
He is subordinated to a Penghulu , the head of the mukim , who in turn subordinated to the district officer. Pahang GDP share by sector . As a federal state of Malaysia, Pahang is a relatively open state-oriented market economy. With GDP growing an average 5. The amount constitutes 4. Historically, by the 19th century, Pahang's economy, like in ancient times, was still heavily dependant on the export of gold.
Gold mines can be found from Bera to Jelai River river basin. The tin ore production was primarily concentrated at Sungai Lembing , where during its heyday, the operations saw the excavation of deep shaft mines that were among the largest, longest and deepest in the world. Thousands of people were at work in the mines which places had, in consequence, become an important trading centres in the state.
Mining of the ore, used to make aluminium , surged in after neighbouring Indonesia prohibited the raw material from being sold overseas. The low grade iron ores were consumed by the pipe-coating industry that supplied the oil and gas sector and cement plants, while the high grades were exported. With its richness in biodiversity, Pahang is offering ecotourism to its hill resorts, beaches and national parks.
In , the state attracted 9. The agricultural sector is another key economic sector of the state. Pahang was historically a primary exporter of forestry products like sandalwood , damar and rattans. It contributes approximately The third largest component of Pahang economy is the manufacturing sector. Pahang automotive industry , which is rapidly developing, is centred in Peramu Jaya Industrial Park in Pekan. The expansion plan is expected to transform the area into a national and regional hub for car assembly, manufacturing of automotive parts and components, as well as automotive research and development activities.
Infrastructure in Pahang, like the rest of the east coast region of Peninsular Malaysia, is still relatively underdeveloped compared to the west coast. Pahang also financed much of its infrastructure projects under the privatisation concept, through 13 state statutory bodies including Pahang Development Corporation, Pahang State Foundation, Development Authority of Pahang Tenggara, Tioman Development Authority and Fraser's Hill Development Corporation.
Under its Total Energy Solution, Tenaga Nasional also offers electricity packaged with steam and chilled water for the benefit of certain industries that require multiple forms of energy for their activities. The department is also responsible for the planning, development, management of water supply as well as billing and collection of payment.
In Pahang, water supply comes mainly from rivers and streams and there are about 79 water treatment plants located in various districts. The federal government initiated Pahang-Selangor Raw Water Transfer Project that includes the construction of the Kelau dam on the Pahang river, as well as the transfer of water via a tunnel through the Titiwangsa Mountains.
In , the household internet broadband penetration per inhabitants in Pahang was relatively high among states of the east coast, but was lower than Malaysian national figure, Since , the programs have been expanded to include underserved urban communities as well. As of , 89 internet centres have been established in Pahang, in addition to 11 Mini Community Broadband centres and 1 Community Broadband Library. Community WiFi WK initiative has also been implemented by the government since to provide free internet access through Wifi hotspots.
In Pahang alone, a total number of Community Wi-Fi have been set up. In terms of fixed line broadband, suburban broadband initiatives were outlined in the Eleventh Malaysia Plan to increase broadband accessibility in suburban and rural areas. By , the number of ports in Pahang was growing up to 7, ports, the fourth highest in Malaysia after Selangor, Johor and Perak.
The mobile telecommunication penetration, although increasingly popular, was lower compared to the national figure per inhabitants, Cellular coverage expansion in Pahang is served by communication towers, with 3G mobile broadband coverage has been expanded to sites and LTE mobile broadband to 42 sites respectively.
To accommodate the demand for high-speed mobile broadband, the core network capacity has been upgraded, with fibre-optic network has been expanded in to a total The planned submarine cable will connect the state of Pahang and Sabah through connecting points in Cherating and Kota Kinabalu respectively.